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Oral melanoma in tongue with a 2-year disease length.
Top: Complete uterine prolapse.
Center and bottom: Female reproductive organs, diagrammatic and in situ.
In healthy women, the uterus is held in place by a “hammock” of ligaments and muscles, most notably the broad ligament, and the uterosacral ligaments. If these ligaments are torn or undergo trauma, they can weaken, and uterine prolapse can occur. The vast majority of uterine prolapse patients only have the uterus fall into the vagina, and further prolapse can often be staved off by Kegel and other exercises.
However, in severe cases (most often in very difficult vaginal births, following difficult pregnancies), both the uterus and vagina can prolapse, and completely evert from the pelvis. In these cases, it’s often only possible to revert and secure the vagina; the uterus is too heavy to suture into place with no natural support, and is generally removed in a hysterectomy.
Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical. Henry Gray, 1910.
Atlas Iconographique. Dr. S. Laskowski, 1898.
Gangrene following a gunshot laceration of the femoral artery
Dry gangrene is caused by acute or chronic loss of blood flow to the distal part of a limb, and is most often seen these days in those with poorly-controlled diabetes and in life-long smokers. However, it can also occur if the limb suddenly loses circulation, such as in a thrombosis (blood clot), or a lacerated artery, as is seen here.
Without no circulation, tissues begin to die immediately, and spreads outwards until the point where bloodflow is adequate to keep tissue alive (in this case, probably around the point of laceration). Assuming no bacterial infection took hold above the gangrenous area, and the healthy tissue sealed itself off successfully, the end result without surgery would be the drying up and falling off of the necrotic tissue, in a process known as autoamputation.
However, the number of confounding factors in possible autoamputation scenarios is vast, and surgical intervention is called for whenever possible.
An American Text-Book of Surgery. Edited by J. William White and William W. Keen, 1894.
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Thyroid, Diffuse Hyperplasia
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Acute myeloid leukemia
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swelling, bleeding, and bruising on a broken foot
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